Roper/Franklin/Little(Klein|Cline|Kline) Y-Chromosome and mtDNA Genetics Projects
(www.roperld.com)

An excellent web site about DNA: http://www.contexo.info/DNA_Basics/

I have initiated projects for testing the genetic connections of males with the surnames Roper, Franklin and Little/Klein/Cline/Kline by analyzing the DNA in Y chromosomes. For details see:
Roper male-lines Y-chromosome project
Click here to join the Roper Y-chromosome project.
(Only males with Surname Roper, Rooper, Rupierre or Musard)
Also, send data showing your Roper ancestry to roperld@vt.edu
FTDNA Newsletter features Roper Genetics Project (Vol.1, Issue 4)
Franklin male-lines Y-chromosome project
Benjamin Franklin's DNA
Click here to join the Franklin Y-chromosome project.
(Only males with surname Franklin)
Also, send data showing your Franklin ancestry to roperld@vt.edu
Article in 3 Dec 2002 Philadelphia Inquirer
Little/Klein/Cline/Kline male-lines Y-chromosome project
Click here to join the Little/Klein/Cline/Kline Y-chromosome project.
(Only males with surnames Little, Klein, Cline or Kline)
Also, send data showing your Little/Klein/Cline/Kline ancestry to roperld@vt.edu
I also include on the web sites any persons of the same surnames who have been tested for the 12, 25 or 37 FTDNA markers at any laboratory; contact me if you are such a person and want to be included.
Those of African ancestry may want to check out http://www.africanancestry.com.
Comparison with other families.
DNAPrint: BioGeographical Ancestry (BGA) Testing
Founding Fathers' DNA

Information about Y-chromosome markers: http://www.ucl.ac.uk/tcga/ScienceSpectra-pages/SciSpect-14-98.html
One further point: The markers occur in "junk" portions of the Y-chromosome; that is, portions that have no effect on inheritance. (It is estimated that 97% of DNA is "junk", which possibly had an effect on inheritance in the far distant past, but no more. Think of it as files in your computer that are of no more use to you, but you have forgotten about them and have never bothered to delete them.) The mutations that occur on "junk" DNA get propagated down generations because there is no selection for or against them.
A diagram of the location of the markers on the Y-chromosome.
Information about the Y-chromosome haplogroups.

Calculation of probabilities for most recent common ancestor for two individuals when their relative mutations are known for a certain number of markers.
Mutation Rates
Y-Chromosome Markers for Many Families
Y-Chromosome Markers Probabilities
Surname Breaks
An extensive DNA Genetics web site
Homo sapiens sapiens (Hss) Events
I also had my mitochrondial DNA tested, which connects back to my matrilineal ancestors and forward from them to their female descendants:
Leon David Roper Genetics from 23andMe.com
mtDNA haplogroup of L. David Roper
and all Female Descendants of His Maternal Line

Genetics/Genealogy Books:
Trace Your Roots with DNA: Using Genetic Tests to Explore Your Family Tree by Megan Smolenyak Smolenyak and Ann Turner
Forensic Genealogy by Colleen Fitzpatrick
DNA & Genealogy by Colleen Fitzpatrick and Andrew Yeiser
Who Do You Think You Are?: The Essential Guide to Tracing Your Family History, BBC Books
Order UK (England & Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland) birth, marriage or death certificates.